Hello, I am sakshi. I will be working on an interesting topic under educational technology.


STAD is considered as one of the most researched , simplest and starightest forward of all the cooperative learning. It was established based on the fulfillment of instructional pedagogy. It is used in meeting well-defined instructional objectives. It is a learning strategy in which there are small group of learners with diffrent levels of abilities , wherein they all come together to accomplish a shared learning goal.

Working of STAD

The students are placed in small groups or teams. The class in its entirely is presented with a lesson and students are subsequently tested. Individuals are graded on the teams performance . Although the tests are taken individually , students are encouraged to work together to improve the overall performance of the group. It is basically a team work , but students are graded individually according to their contribution that they make towards their team. Usually in STAD students are assigned 4 to 5 members in a group that are mixed in performance level , gender and ethnicity. The teacher teaches a lesson to the students and they then work in teams and ensure that thay have mastered the lesson. Then finally students take individual quizzes on the material , at which they may not help each other. Then their scores are compared to their own past averages and points are awarded on the basis of the degree to which students meet or exceed their own earlier performance. It encourages the students to take up responsibility for other members in their group as well as themselves.Thus in this way it is guaranteed that all group members with different levels are equally motivated to do their best

Slavin (1995) enumerated three main concepts of STAD as team rewards , individual accountability and for equal opportunities for success . Team rewards are certificates or either rewards which are given if a STAD group achieves higher than predetermined level . In this way a spirit of positive comptition is reinforced and all or none of the groups would be rewarded based on how they score. In terms of individual accountability , the individual learning of each of the group members determines the success of the terms.

STAD has been used in a wide variety of subjects from mathematics to language , arts to social science and used from 2nd grade in schools through college. It is the most appropriate for teaching well defined objectives by incorporating more open-ended assessments , such as essays or performance.

Ways in which STAD can be used in the classroom.

  1. Teaching in which the teacher introduces new ,material through lectures , class discussions or some form of teacher presentation.
  2. Team study in which heterogeneous team members cooperate on worksheets designed to extend and help boost material taught by the teacher.
  3. Tests are individual quizzes . Students take on the assigned materials. Team mates are not allowed to help each other during the quiz. And finally team recognition stage where quiz scores are juxtaposed to past averages, points are given based on improvement from past performance.
  4. Teams that have a high score are awarded high or guven any form of appreciationor certificates are granted to them.

Components of STAD

  1. Class oresentation
  2. Teams
  3. Quizzes
  4. Individual improvement score
  5. Team recognition


  1. Group has greater information resources than individuals do
  2. Group has to employ a greater number of creative problem-solving methods
  3. Group members gain a better understanding of themselves as they interact with each other.
  4. Working in a group foster learning and comprehension of idea discussed.


  1. An individual group member may dominate the discussion.
  2. Some group members may relay too much on others to get the job done.
  3. Group members may pressure others to conorm to the majority opinion.