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My regional article link for end semester -

https://mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A3_%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8_%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%80

https://mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/सदस्य:Swati1911972/alternative_school

https://mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF:Swati1911972/alternative_school

भारतात पर्यायी शाळेची परंपरा ऐतिहासिक काळा पासून आहे. 1500 ईसवी ते 500 ईसवी दरम्यान वैदिक आणि गुरुकुल शैक्षणिक पद्धतीत विद्यार्थ्यांच्या व्यावसायिक, सांस्कृतिक आणि आध्यात्मिक प्रगती वर जोर दिल्या जायचा. ह्या शैक्षणिक पद्धतीत धार्मिक ग्रंथ, तत्त्वज्ञान, मुत्साद्दिपणां, ज्योतिष विद्या, वेद शास्त्र ईत्यादि चा तर्कशुद्ध विचार करण्याची क्षमता विकसित करण्यावर भर दिला जायचा. स्थानिक अर्थव्यवस्थेच्या पतन आणि ईंग्रजांच्या वाढत्या प्रभावामुळे ही पारंपरिक शैक्षणिक पद्धत अधु झाली. ईंग्रजांनी, ईंग्रजी शैक्षणिक पद्धतीला वाव दिल्या मुळे पारंपरिक शिक्षा पद्धतीच्या मुळावर प्रहार झाला व त्याचा विकास खंडित झाला. ह्या ईंग्रजी शाळेनचा मुख्य उद्देश्य भारतीय मुळच्या लोकांना ईंग्रजी शिकवणे होत जेणे करून ते हुकुमतीची सेवा करण्या योग्य होतील.  भारताला स्वातंत्र मिळाल्या वर सुद्धा ईंग्रजी शिक्षणाचा प्रभाव ओसरला नाही. आज भारतीय सरकार जास्तीत जास्त लोकांना साक्षर करण्यावर आणि शिक्षणात स्थानिक भाषेच्या प्रयोगावर जोर देत आहे. परंतु आजही भारतात ईंग्रजी शिक्षा पद्धतीचाच बोलबाला आहे. विसाव्या शतकाच्या सुरुवातीला, स्वामी विवेकानंद, स्वामी दयानंद सरस्वती, ज्योतिबा फुले, सावित्रीबाई फुले, ई. समाज सुधारकांचा कल पर्यायी पारंपरिक शिक्षणाकडे झुकला. ह्या पर्यायी (आल्टर्नेटिव) शाळेंच्या मार्फत त्यांनी समाजातील विषमतेचे अभीभाषण करण्याचे कार्य सुरू केले. ह्या काळात काही अश्या पर्यायी शाळेनची स्थापना करण्यात आली ज्या आजही कार्यरत आहेत - उदा. रवींद्रनाथ टागोर ह्यांच शांती निकेतन, जिद्दु कृष्णमुर्ती ह्यांची ऋषि वॅली आणि श्री अरोविन्दो ह्यांची आश्रम शाळा. १९७०च्या दशकात पर्यायी शिक्षा पद्धतीला चांगलाच वाव मिळाला. ह्याच मुख्य कारण शिक्षा पद्धती समाजाच्या प्रत्येक वर्गा पर्येन्त न पोहचणे होते. पर्यायी विचारसरणीचा उद्देश समाजातील वंचित वर्गाला सक्षम करणे होते. १९८९ मधे भारतीय सरकारने नॅशनल इन्स्टिट्यूट ऑफ ओपन स्कूलिंगची स्थापना केली जेणेकरून अश्या शाळा एका छत्रा खाली आणण्यात आल्या, परंतु मुख्यतः पर्यायी शाळेंच्या क्षेत्रात सुधार व्यक्‍तिगत योगदानाचे परिणाम आहे. ही शिक्षा पद्धत मुलांवर केंद्रित असून, मुलांना त्यांच्या कलानुसर शिकण्याची सूट देते. तेव्हा, ह्या शिक्षण पद्धतीचा विकास अपरिहार्य आहे.

Sir, i have only 1 reference for the article, is it okay?

Link for the article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Swati1911972/Alternative_schooling

India

India has a long history of alternative schools. Vedic and Gurukul systems of education from 1500 BC to 500 BC emphasized the acquisition of occupational skills, cultural and spiritual enrichment of the students. The guru and the students were the seekers of the eternal truth.  Knowledge of religious scriptures, philosophy, statecraft, medicine, astrology, etc was imparted by the guru in an atmosphere which encouraged rational thinking, reasoning and critical questioning among the students.

However, with the decline of local economies and the advent of colonial rule in India, this traditional system of education went into decline. Policies of the colonial rulers ensured that these community-based schools were replaced by the alien anglicized system. The schools set up by the British authorities were mainly to create a work force competent enough to work for them. Despite the transfer of power to India in 1947, Indian schools continue to work under the system developed in the colonial era. The government has focused only on the expansion of school network so that it is available to a wider population, designing of curriculum according to the educational needs, local language as the medium of instruction, etc. 

By the end of the nineteenth century, many social reformers began exploring alternatives to the existing education system. Vivekananda, Dayananda Saraswati, Jyotiba Phule, Savitribai Phule, Syed Ahmed Khan and others were pioneers who took up the cause of social regeneration, removal of social inequalities and promotion of girls’ education through the establishment of alternative schools. In the early twentieth century educationists created models of alternative schools as a response to the drawbacks of the mainstream education which are still viable. Ravindranath Tagore’s Shanti Niketan, Jiddu Krishnamurthy’s Rishi Valley School, Sri Aurobindo and the Mother’s Ashram School are some examples.

An upsurge in alternative education is seen from 1970s onward. As the national development failed to trickle down to the lower strata of the society, alternative thinking in education took root for the common goal of empowering the marginalized and ensuring the benefits of development to the disadvantaged. Most of the alternative schools established in India were the result of individual efforts rather than the efforts of the government. The setting up of the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) in 1989 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, taking all the Alternative Schools under its umbrage was one of the major steps taken by the government. The NIOS provides a platform for the children to learn at their pace, with individualized assessment and also provide a link to the entry in the mainstream.  

Some of the features of alternative schools which can be easily replicated in the mainstream schools:

1. Child-centered school philosophy

2. Emphasis on the activities like sports, art, drama along with academics

3. More activities and fewer lectures in day to day teaching

4. Methods of evaluation for slow paced and differently - abled children

5. Retraining of teachers

In India, mainstream schools are more popular because these schools are more result and rank oriented.  Hence such schools are considered better for students who want to pursue professional course. But few are aware that in alternative schools also children take government prescribed examination. Moreover, the National Curriculum Framework of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has critically reviewed the current syllabus to develop books and curriculum in such a way that learning shifts away from the rote learning to experiential learning.

Although the mainstream educational set up is dominant, alternatives continue to thrive and expand.

User.vincentvikram